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Different Way of Purifying Water

1) Boiling :

Boiling is oldest and most effective household drinking water treatment. It is promoted in both developing countries where water is routinely of uncertain microbial quality and in developed countries when conventional water treatment fails or water supplies are interrupted as a result of disasters or other emergencies.

The WHO recommends bringing water to a rolling boil as an indication that a disinfection temperature has been achieved If practised correctly, boiling is one of the most effective water treatment methods to kill or deactivate all classes of waterborne pathogens, including bacterial spores and protozoan cysts that have shown resistance to chemical disinfection and viruses that are too small to be mechanically removed by microfiltration. Heating water to even 55oC has been shown to kill or inactivate most pathogenic bacteria, viruses, helmets and protozoa that are commonly water A clean container should be used for the boiling and after boiling, water should be stored in a clean and covered container, and handled carefully (no utensils should be brought in contact with the water, thus water needs to be poured in another clean recipient for consumption) to minimise the recontamination.

Despite its effectiveness and simplicity, boiling has the disadvantage to require affordable and sufficient fuel to have properly boiled water for a regular drinking purpose, and is quite labour intensive.

2) Ceramic Candle steel Filter :

Ceramic candle filters are simple devices made out of clay and used to filter drinking water in order to removes turbidity, suspended materials and pathogens. Removal takes place by physical process such as mechanical trapping and adsorption on the ceramic candles, which have micro-scale pores. Water is poured into the upper of two container and flows through a candle situated in the bottom. Once the water has passed through the candle, it is collected in the lower container. This system both treats the water and provides safe storage until it is used. The filters are easy to assemble and no energy is required. Maintenance includes frequent scrubbing with a brush and proper care during transport and its use. They can be constructed with locally available material, which can contribute to the development of local commerce.

Disadvantages :
  • Does not remove all the pathogens
  • Does not remove chemical contaminants and colour
  • Highly turbid or iron containing water plugs candle pores
  • Low flow rate
  • Ceramic candle and clay container is not easy to transport due to its fragility and heavy weight
  • Quality control difficult to ensure in local production

3) Bio sand Filter :

The bio sand filter (BSF) is a simple household water treatment device, which is an innovation on traditional slow sand filters specifically designed for intermittent use. A BSF consists of a concrete or plastic container filled with specially selected and prepared sand and gravel. As water flows through the filter, physical straining removes pathogens, iron, turbidity and manganese from drinking water. A shallow layer of water sits atop the sand and a bio film develops. The bio film contributes to the removal of pathogens due to predation and competition for food of non-harmful microorganisms contained in the bio film and the harmful organisms in the water.

Disadvantages :
  • Biological layer takes 2o to 30 days to develop to maturity
  • Low rate of virus inactivation
  • High turbidity (> 50 NTU) will cause filter to clog and requires more maintenance
  • Requires that the filter be used on a regular basis
  • Cannot remove dissolved compounds
  • Can be difficult to move or transport (due to weight)
  • Lack of residual protection (risk of re-contamination)
  • Requires that the filter be used on a regular basis

4) Chlorination :

Water disinfection by chlorination was massively introduced in the early twentieth century. It set off a technological revolution in water treatment and complemented the known and used process of filtration. In addition to destroying harmful microorganisms, chlorination also reduces the amount of iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide in water. Chemical disinfection using chlorine has the benefits of being relatively quick, simple, and cheap and allows a residual amount of chlorine to remain in the water to provide some protection against recontamination.

Disadvantages :
  • Requires that users purchase chlorine on a continuous basis and may not affordable by very poor people
  • Does not deactivate parasites like Giardia, cryptosporidium and worm eggs
  • Taste is unacceptable to some users
  • Dose is product specific
  • Availability may be restricted in rural and remote areas
  • Requires clear water to be most effective
  • Chlorination of water with high organic matter leads to the risk of toxic disinfection by-products formation.


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Maharashtra, INDIA.

Tel. No.: 022 6507 4782

Mobile No.: +91 98330 62620

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